Free Guidance Notes on Apparent Losses

& Water Loss Reduction Planning

With 9 Appendices on specific topics

These Guidance Notes represent the collective experience and sustained efforts over a 10 year period of six international specialists who are committed to the ‘free to all’ dissemination of good practices in management of Non-Revenue Water. The Apparent (Commercial) losses component of NRW tends to receive less attention, with fewer easily accessible publications, than Real (Physical) losses. These Guidance Notes, with the accompanying 9 separate Appendices, and other freely available material on the LEAKSuite Outreach (App loss) webpage, seek to reduce that imbalance.

The Guidance Notes format of 1 main document and 9 Appendices has been used so that each of the 10 documents can be updated separately in future, or additional Appendices can be added. Any future changes will be documented on this webpage.

The Guidance Notes document  contains Sections on Water Balance and Apparent Losses; Water Audit Component Analysis; Apparent Losses Indicators; Action Planning and Dynamics of Losses; and Economics of Apparent Losses. Each of the Sections has a set of References (some with weblinks to free papers). The Bibliography lists 74 papers and books. Each of the Appendices also has its own set of References.

The following websites also permit direct download of the following of these documents:

Vermersch M, Carteado F, Rizzo A, Johnson E, Arregui F, Lambert A 77 pages15 Sep 2016GUIDANCE NOTES 2016L
Appendix 1Non-Revenue Water and Large Water Meter Calibration. Johnson E 11 pages15 Sep 2016Paper AppLoss 2016H
Appendix 2Non-Revenue Water and Unbilled Authorised Consumption
Vermersch M, Carteado F, Lambert A 10 pages
15 Sep 2016Paper AppLoss 2016G
Appendix 3Customer Metering Errors Arregui F 43 pages15 Sep 2016Paper AppLoss 2016J
Appendix 4Apparent Water Losses generated by Unauthorised Consumption – Assessment and Corrective Actions Carteado F, Vermersch M 18 pages15 Sep 2016Paper AppLoss 2016B
Appendix 5Non-Revenue Water and Errors throughout the Data Acquisition Process
Vermersch M, Carteado F 21 pages
15 Sep 2016Paper AppLoss 2016K
Appendix 6Non-Revenue Water and Revenue Collection Ratio: Review, Assessment and Recommendations Carteado F, Vermersch M 15 pages15 Sep 2016Paper AppLoss 2016A
Appendix 7An Action Planning Model to Control Non-Revenue Water. Vermersch M, Rizzo A 12 pages15 Sep 2016Paper AppLoss 2007R
Presentation AppLoss 2018A
Appendix 8An Overall Dynamic Approach in Water Loss Reduction Vermersch M, Carteado F 10 pages15 Sep 2016Paper AppLoss 2010N
Presentation AppLoss 2018B
Appendix 9Change Management as an Indispensable Component when Planning for NRW Control
Vermersch M, Rizzo A 9 pages
15 Sep 2016Paper AppLoss 2009F
Presentation AppLoss 2018C

The LEAKSSuite website gratefully acknowledges the voluntary contributions made by the Authors and others who drafted, edited and provided critical commentary during the development of the Guidance Notes and Appendices. More comprehensive Acknowledgements are made in the main Guidance Notes document.

If any Utility wishes to contribute data to an international set of ALIs (Apparent Losses Index, see Section 3.3.4 of main Guidance Notes document), please contact Author M. Vermersch.

If any errors are identified in the Guidance Notes or Appendices, please advise the LEAKSSuite website using Contact Us

15th September 2016